عن طارق بن أشيم الأشجعي مرفوعاً: "من قال لا إله إلا الله، وكَفَرَ بما يُعْبَدُ من دون الله حَرُمَ مالُه ودمُه وحِسابُه على الله".
[صحيح.] - [رواه مسلم.]
المزيــد ...

Tāriq ibn Ashīm al-Ashja‘i (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Whoever says, 'there is no god but Allah' and disbelieves in everything worshiped besides Allah, his property and blood becomes inviolable, and his reckoning will be with Allah.”
[Sahih/Authentic] - [Muslim]

Explanation

In this Hadīth the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) clarifies that when two requirements are met, it becomes forbidden to kill someone and take his wealth : 1. saying: 'there is no god but Allah'. 2. Disbelieving in everything worshiped besides Allah. If these two conditions are fulfilled, it becomes incumbent to refrain from harming such a person, based on his apparent words, and to leave his inward faith to Allah, the Almighty. This applies as long as he does not commit a sin that makes it lawful to spill his blood, e.g. apostasy; to take his wealth, e.g. Zakah evasion; or to damage his reputation, e.g. procrastination in the repayment of debt.

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1: The meaning of 'La ilaha illa Allah' (there is no god worthy of worship but Allah) is to disbelieve in all that is worshiped apart from Allah such as idols, graves, and others.
2: The mere utterance of this statement, without disbelieving in whatever is worshiped apart from Allah, does not render inviolable the blood and property of the person even though he perceives its meaning and acts upon it unless he disbelieves in whatever is worshiped apart from Allah.
3: Whoever holds the belief of Tawhīd (Monotheism) and adheres to its ordinances inwardly and outwardly should be spared any harm until he shows something contrary to that.
4: When a disbeliever embraces Islam, even in battle, he should not be subject to any harm until he proves to be otherwise.
5: A person may say: 'La ilaha illa Allah' (there is no god worthy of worship but Allah), yet he does not disbelieve in what is worshiped other than Him.
6: Worldly judgments are based on what is apparent, but in the Hereafter, one is judged according to his intentions and purposes.
7: A Muslim’s property and blood are inviolable unless there is a rightful cause for canceling such inviolability.
8: It shows the merit of Islam, as it protects the blood and property of those who embrace it.
9: It shows the prohibition of taking the property of a Muslim, except for what is obligatory to be taken as per the Shariah, like Zakah money or a fine for a damage he caused.