عن عبد الله بن عمرو -رضي الله عنهما- عن النبي -صلى الله عليه وسلم- قال: «من قَتَلَ مُعَاهَدًا لم يَرَحْ رَائحَةَ الجنة، وإن رِيْحَهَا تُوجَدُ من مَسِيرَة أربعين عامًا».
[صحيح.] - [رواه البخاري.]
المزيــد ...

‘Abdullāh ibn ‘Amr (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) said: "Whoever kills a Mu‘āhad shall not smell the fragrance of Paradise, though its fragrance can be smelt at a distance of forty years (of traveling).''
[Sahih/Authentic] - [Al-Bukhari]

Explanation

This Hadīth indicates that anyone who kills a Mu‘āhad will not be admitted to Paradise or even smell its fragrance, although its fragrance can be smelt at a distance of forty years of traveling. A Mu‘āhad is a non-Muslim who enters the lands of Muslims with a pact of security and protection, or a Dhimmi. The warning in the Hadīth proves that Islam is keen on preserving the lives of those who are given protection by Muslims, and that killing them is a major sin.

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1: It is prohibited to kill a Mu‘āhad (a person granted the pledge of protection by Muslims). This is a major sin, for it entails the deprivation of its perpetrator from entering Paradise, as apparently indicated by the Hadīth.
2: Some versions of this Hadīth refer to killing 'unjustly' and 'illegally', which is a well-known restriction among the Shar‘i rules.
3: Fulfilling vows is obligatory.
4: It establishes that Paradise has a scent.
5: The scent of Paradise can be smelt from afar.