عن عبد الرحمن بن سمرة -رضي الله عنه- قال: قال رسول الله -صلى الله عليه وسلم-: «لا تحلفوا بِالطَّوَاغِي، ولا بآبَائِكُم».
[صحيح.] - [رواه مسلم.]
المزيــد ...

‘Abdur-Rahmān ibn Samurah(may Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) said: "Do not swear by Tawāghi (false deities) nor by your fathers."
[Sahih/Authentic] - [Muslim]

Explanation

In this Hadīth, the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) prohibits swearing by the names of idols. The noun Tawāghi refers to the idols that were worshiped in the pre-Islamic times. The name Tawāghi is derived from the term Tughyān, which means tyranny and transgression of limits. They were called thus because the idols were the reason that people exceeded the limits in their disbelief and in their transgressions. In a Qur’anic verse, the base verb Tagha is used to describe the flooding of water, meaning that it overflowed and exceeded its limits. Allah says: {Indeed, when the water (of Nūh's flood) overflowed beyond its limits, We carried you in the floating (Ark).} [Sūrat al-Hāqqah: 11] In the pre-Islamic times, the Arabs used to swear by their idols and by their fathers, so they were prohibited, as indicated in this Hadīth. In another reporion in Sunan Abu Dawūd and other books, Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) said: "Do not swear by your fathers or your mothers or by the rivals." Rivals, here, means their idols that they considered to be rivals to Allah by worshiping them and swearing by their names. An example is their saying: "Wa al-Lāti wa al-‘Uzza;" meaning: I swear by the two idols Al-Lāt and Al-‘Uzza. In a third narration by Al-Bukhāri and Muslim, ‘Abdullāh ibn ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) said: "Verily, Allah prohibits you from swearing by your fathers. Whoever has to take an oath should swear by Allah or keep silent." The Prophet's words: "by your fathers" also means do not swear by your brothers, or your grandfathers, or your leaders. However, he specifically mentioned the fathers because that was the common practice of the Arabs at hat time. "Whoever has to take an oath should swear by Allah or keep silent" means that he either swears by Allah or does not swear at all. To swear by other than Allah is strictly forbidden. The scholars, may Allah have mercy upon them, said that the wisdom behind the prohibition of swearing by other than Allah is that swearing by an entity implies glorification of that entity and to aggrandize him. True glorification is only for Allah, so no one and nothing should be glorified or aggrandized in this manner.

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