عن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم: "لاَ يَقْبَل الله صلاَة أَحَدِكُم إِذا أَحْدَث حَتَّى يَتوضَّأ".
[صحيح] - [متفق عليه]
المزيــد ...

Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) said: "Allah does not accept the prayer of anyone of you who is in the state of Hadath (minor ritual impurity), until he performs ablution."
Sahih/Authentic. - [Al-Bukhari and Muslim]

Explanation

The wise legislator ordered that anyone who wants to pray must only pray when they are in a good and a beautiful state, because prayer is the firmly established connection between the Lord and His servant. It is the servant's channel to have a confidential talk with Allah. So Muslims are ordered to perform ablution and be free from impurities during prayer, and informed that without purification, the prayer is rejected and not accepted.

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Benefits

  1. Prayer occupies high status, as Allah does not accept it without purification.
  2. Prayer in a state of impurity, minor or major, is not accepted.
  3. Hadath (state of ritual impurity) breaks ablution and invalidates prayer if it happens during its performance.
  4. Non-acceptance here means the prayer is invalid and must be repeated.
  5. This Hadīth signifies that some prayers are accepted and others are rejected. What is done in accordance with the Shariah is accepted; otherwise, it will be rejected. This applies to all other acts of worship. The Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: "Whoever does something contrary to our way will have it rejected."
  6. Prayer of a person in a state of ritual impurity is prohibited unless one makes ablution, for Allah does not accept it. Admittedly, seeking closeness to Allah through something unacceptable by Him is a kind of defiance and mockery.
  7. If a person performs ablution for a prayer and then the time of another prayer comes while he is still in a state of purification, he is not required to make ablution anew.
  8. Prayer, be it obligatory or supererogatory, even the funeral prayer, is not accepted if performed by a person in a state of ritual impurity, even if he does so out of forgetfulness, until he makes ablution. The same holds true for a person in a state of major ritual impurity who performs prayer before taking a bath. Whoever does this forgetfully is required to repeat the prayer.