عن عبد الله بن عمرو بن العاص رضي الله عنهما عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال: «الكبائر: الإشراك بالله، وعُقُوق الوالدين، وقتل النفس، واليمين الغَمُوس». [صحيح] - [رواه البخاري] المزيــد ...
‘‘Abdullāh ibn ‘Amr ibn al-‘Aas (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) said: "The grave major sins are: associating partners with Allah, undutifulness towards the parents, murder, and intentional false oath." Sahih/Authentic. - [Al-Bukhari]
This Hadīth deals with many of the sins that are described as grave major sins. They are called thus due to the evil consequences on their perpetrator as well as on people in general, in this world and in the Hereafter. The first of them is "associating partners with Allah", meaning: disbelief in Allah such that a person worships others along with Him and denies the worship of his Lord (alone). The second is undutifulness to the parents: undutifulness, in essence, is to do to one or both of one's parents something that annoys them as per custom, such as disrespecting them, cursing them, and failing to attend to them and take care for them when they are in need of their child. "Murder" is killing without right, such as killing someone out of injustice or aggression. If the person deserves to be killed, such as in the case of retribution and the like, then this is not included in the meaning of this Hadīth. The Hadīth is concluded with a severe warning against the intentional false oath. It is called thus because it dips its perpetrator into sin – or into Hellfire – because he knowingly takes a false oath.
It warns against falling into these sins, for they are major ones.
It points out that there are types of oaths: the Ghamūs (dipping) oath, a false oath that dips its taker in Hellfire; the emphatic oath, in which one swears to do or not to do something whose break requires expiation; and the Laghw (unintentional) oath that one casually takes without intending it, like saying: No, by Allah; yes, by Allah.
The Hadīth highlights only these four types because they are the gravest of major sin and the most serious offenses, but this does not mean they are the only ones.