عن سعيد بن المسيب عن أبيه المسيب بن حزن -رضي الله عنه- قال: "لما حضرَتْ أبا طالب الوفاة جاءه رسول الله -صلى الله عليه وسلم- وعنده عبد الله بن أبي أمية وأبو جهل، فقال له: يا عَمِّ قل لا إله إلا الله، كلمة أُحَاجُّ لك بها عند الله، فقالا له: أَتَرَغَبُ عن ملة عبد المطلب؟ فأعاد عليه النبي -صلى الله عليه وسلم-، فأعادا، فكان آخر ما قال هو على ملة عبد المطلب، وأبى أن يقول لا إله إلا الله، فقال النبي -صلى الله عليه وسلم-: لأستغفرن لك ما لم أُنْهَ عنك، فأنزل الله: {مَا كَانَ لِلنَّبِيِّ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَنْ يَسْتَغْفِرُوا لِلْمُشْرِكِينَ وَلَوْ كَانُوا أُولِي قربى...} الآية"، وأنزل الله في أبي طالب: {إِنَّكَ لا تَهْدِي مَنْ أَحْبَبْتَ وَلَكِنَّ اللَّهَ يَهْدِي مَنْ يَشَاءُ وَهُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِالْمُهْتَدِينَ}.
[صحيح.] - [متفق عليه.]
المزيــد ...

Sa`eed ibn al-Musayyib reported on the authority of his father, al-Musayyib ibn Hazan, may Allah be pleased with him that when Abu Taalib was about to die, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him, came to him and found Abdullah ibn Abu Umayyah and Abu Jahl with him. He said to him: "O uncle, say that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah, as it is a word with which I can can defend you before Allah." Abdullah ibn Abu Umayyah and Abu Jahl said to him: "Would you abandon the religion of Abdul-Muttalib?" The Prophet, may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him, repeated his request and they also repeated their words to him. The last thing he said was that he would die on the religion of Abdul-Muttalib, refusing to say that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah. The Prophet, may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him, said: "Indeed, I shall continue seeking forgiveness for you unless I am forbidden from doing so." So Allah revealed: {It is not for the Prophet and those who have believed to ask forgiveness for the polytheists, even if they were relatives, after it has become clear to them that they are companions of Hellfire.} [Surat-ut-Tawbah: 113] Allah also revealed regarding Abu Talib: {Indeed, you do not guide whom you like, but Allah guides whom He wills. And He knows best those who are the guided.} [Surat-ul-Qasas: 56]

Explanation

The Prophet, may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him, visited Abu Taalib when he was in the throes of death and offered him to embrace Islam, hoping his life would end with something that causes him to attain success and happiness in the hereafter. He requested him to utter the word of monotheism. Yet, the polytheists encouraged him to remain upon the religion of his forefathers, which was polytheism, as they knew that the word of monotheism negates polytheism and indicates sincere worship of Allah alone. The Prophet, may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him, requested his uncle again to utter the testimony of faith; but, the polytheists repeated their opposite request, and they became the reason for diverting him from the truth and subsequently dying upon polytheism. At that moment, the Prophet, may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him, swore that he would continue seeking forgiveness of Allah for him, as long as he was not prohibited from doing so. So, Allah revealed the prohibition of doing that and clarified for him that guidance is in the Hand of Allah who blesses whomever He wishes with it. This because Allah knows whom guidance is suitable for and whom it is not. Allah the Almighty revealed: {It is not for the Prophet and those who have believed to ask forgiveness for the polytheists, even if they were relatives, after it has become clear to them that they are companions of Hellfire.} [Surat-ut-Tawbah: 113] Allah also revealed regarding Abu Taalib: {Indeed, you do not guide whom you like, but Allah guides whom He wills. And He knows best those who are the guided.} [Surat-ul-Qasas: 56]

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