عن عبد الله بن مَسْعُود -رضي الله عنه- قال: عَلَّمَنِي رسول الله -صلى الله عليه وسلم- التَّشَهُّد، كَفِّي بين كفيه، كما يُعَلِّمُنِي السورة من القرآن: التَّحِيَّاتُ للَّه, وَالصَّلَوَاتُ وَالطَّيِّبَاتُ، السلام عليك أيها النبي ورحمة الله وبركاته، السلام علينا وعلى عباد الله الصالحين، أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وأشهد أن محمدا عبده ورسوله».
وفي لفظ: «إذا قعد أحدكم في الصلاة فليقل: التحيات لله...» وذكره، وفيه: «فإنكم إذا فعلتم ذلك فقد سَلَّمْتُمْ على كل عبد صالح في السماء والأرض ...» وفيه: « ... فَلْيَتَخَيَّرْ من المسألة ما شاء». [صحيح.] - [متفق عليه.] المزيــد ...
‘Abdullāh ibn Mas‘ūd (may Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Messenger of Allah (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) taught me the Tashahhud, with my hand between his two hands, as he would teach me a Sūrah from the Qur’an: "At-Tahiyyātu lillāhi was-salawātu wat-tayyibāt, as-salāmu 'alaika ayyuhan-Nabiyyu wa rahmatu Allahi wa barakātuhu. As-salāmu 'alayna wa 'alā 'ibād illahis-sālihin, ashahdu an lā illāha ill-Allah wa ashhadu anna Muhammadan 'abduhu wa rasuluhu." (Greetings, prayers and good words are due to Allah. Peace be upon you, O Prophet, and so is Allah's mercy and blessings. Peace be upon us and upon the righteous slaves of Allah. I bear witness that none has the right to be worshiped except Allah, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger.)'
In another wording: ''If one of you sits in the prayer, let him recite: 'At-Tahiyātu lillāh..." and he mentioned the rest of the Hadīth. It also contains: ''If you do this, then you have sent the greeting of peace to every righteous servant in the heaven and the earth.'' And further: ''Then let him choose the supplication he would like to recite.'' [Sahih/Authentic] - [Al-Bukhari and Muslim]
‘Abdullāh ibn Mas‘ūd (may Allah be pleased with him) mentions that the Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) taught him the Tashahhud that is recited in the sitting position during the prayer after the first two Rak‘ahs of the three-Rak‘ah and four-Rak‘ah prayers as well as in the last sitting in the two-Rak‘ah prayer. The Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) was gentle with Ibn Mas‘ūd as he placed his hand between his two hands and taught him the Tashahhud.
This invocation starts with glorifying Allah, the Almighty, in absolute terms. He deserves all prayers, acts of worship, good words, actions, and attributes.
Next, peace and blessings, mercy and goodness, and perfections are to be invoked upon the Prophet. Then one should supplicate for oneself and those present from among the human beings and the angels. Then a general supplication is to be made for all the righteous servants of Allah from among the humans, jinn, angels, and all the inhabitants of the heavens and the earth, those from the past and those to come in the future. That is one of the comprehensive prayers that the Prophet made.
Then one is to bear witness that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is 1. Allah's slave and 2. Allah's messenger.
Both attributes are honorary and midway between elevating the Prophet to divine degrees and undervaluing him.
The Tashahhud can be said in different ways, as shown by reports. However, the report of Ibn Mas‘ūd is the best and most famous one. Other authentic attributes may be incorporated.
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