عن عبد الله بن عمر -رضي الله عنهما- قال: «فَرَضَ رسول الله -صلى الله عليه وسلم- صَدَقَةَ الفطر -أو قال رمضان- على الذَّكر والأنثى والحُرِّ والمملوك: صاعا من تمر، أو صاعا من شعير، قال: فَعَدَل الناس به نِصْفَ صَاعٍ مِنْ بُرٍّ، على الصغير والكبير». وفي لفظ: « أن تُؤدَّى قبل خروج الناس إلى الصلاة»
[صحيح.] - [متفق عليه.]
المزيــد ...

‘Abdullāh ibn ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Messenger of Allah (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) made it obligatory for every male and female, the free and the slave, to give one Sā‘ of dates or barley as Sadaqat al-Fitr (or said Sadaqat Ramadan). He said: "People considered that equivalent to half a Sā‘ of wheat, due on the young and the old." Another wording reads: "It is to be paid before going out to the Eid prayer."
[Sahih/Authentic] - [Al-Bukhari and Muslim]

Explanation

The Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) made Sadaqat al-Fitr obligatory for all Muslims who have more than one Sā‘ of food surplus on that (Eid) day. The elderly, youth, male and female, free man and slave are all ordered to give out one Sā‘ of dates or barely. This Zakah exhibits sympathy and solace from the wealthy to the less fortunate. The obligation of Zakat al-Fitr is entrusted to the head of the household, or the one responsible for the family, who gives it out on behalf of his dependents including women, children and slaves.

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