عن سعد بن أبي وقاص -رضي الله عنه- قال: جاءني رسول الله -صلى الله عليه وسلم- يَعُودُنِي عام حَجَّةِ الوداع من وَجَعٍ اشْتَدَّ بي، فقلت: يا رسول الله، قد بلغ بي من الوَجَعِ ما ترى، وأنا ذو مال، ولا يَرِثُنِي إلا ابنةٌ أَفَأَتَصَدَّقُ بثلثي مالي؟ قال: لا، قلت: فالشَّطْرُ يا رسول الله؟ قال: لا، قلت: فالثلث؟ قال: الثلث، والثلث كثير، إنك إن تَذَرَ وَرَثَتَكَ أغنياء خيرٌ من أن تَذَرَهُم عالَةً يَتَكَفَّفُونَ الناس، وإنك لن تنفق نفقة تبتغي بها وجه الله إلا أُجِرْتَ بها، حتى ما تجعل في فِيْ امرأتك. قال: قلت: يا رسول الله أُخَلَّفُ بعد أصحابي؟ قال: إنك لن تُخَلَّفُ فتعمل عملا تبتغي به وجه الله إلا ازْدَدْتَ به درجة ورِفْعَةً، ولعلك أن تُخَلَّفَ حتى ينتفع بك أقوام، ويُضَرُّ بك آخرون. اللهم أَمْضِ لأصحابي هجرتهم، ولا تَرُدَّهُم على أَعْقَابِهِم، لكنِ البَائِسُ سعد بن خَوْلَةَ (يَرْثِي له رسول الله -صلى الله عليه وسلم- أن مات بمكة).
[صحيح.] - [متفق عليه.]
المزيــد ...

Sa‘d ibn Abi Waqqās (may Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Messenger of Allah (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) came to visit me for an illness which became so hard to bear in the year of the Farewell Hajj. I said: "O Messenger of Allah, you can see the severity of the illness which I am experiencing. I have property and none will inherit me except a daughter. Shall I give two thirds of my property in charity?" The Messenger of Allah (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) said: 'No.' I said: "Then shall I give one half, O Messenger of Allah?" He said: 'No.' Then I said: "So, (shall I give) one third?" The Messenger of Allah (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) said: "(Give) one third, and one third is too much. Indeed, leaving your heirs rich is better than leaving them poor and begging from people. You never spend anything seeking thereby the pleasure of Allah but that you are rewarded for it, even what you place in the mouth of your wife." I said: "O Messenger of Allah, will I be left here in Makkah after my companions have departed for Madīnah?" He said: "If you are left behind and do good deeds whereby you seek Allah's pleasure, you will be raised a degree and your status will be elevated on account of them. Perhaps you will be left behind so that some people may benefit by you and others may be harmed by you. O Allah, complete for my Companions their Hijrah (immigration to Madīnah), and do not turn them back on their heels. The unfortunate one, however, is Sa‘d ibn Khawlah." The Messenger of Allah (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) felt sorry for him, as he had died at Makkah.
[Sahih/Authentic] - [Al-Bukhari and Muslim]

Explanation

Sa‘d ibn Abi Waqqās (may Allah be pleased with him) was severely ill during the Farewell Hajj, to the point that he feared death. The Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) visited him, as was his habit in looking after his Companions and caring for them. Sa‘d mentioned to the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) what he thought would be good reasons for him to give most of his wealth in charity. He said: "O Messenger of Allah, I am very sick and fear death, I have much wealth, and I do not have vulnerable relatives that will inherit from me except my daughter. So can I give two thirds of my wealth in charity, after my daughter takes her share, so that I can put forward good actions for (my afterlife)?" The Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) said: 'No.' So, Sa‘d said: "Then shall I give one half, O Messenger of Allah?" He said: 'No.' So Sa‘d said again: "Shall I give one third?" Thereupon, the Messenger of Allah (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) told Sa‘d that there is nothing wrong with giving one third in charity, even though that is plenty. So giving less than that is better, such as a quarter or a fifth. Then the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) explained to Sa‘d the wisdom behind reducing the amount of money given in charity by mentioning two points: 1. That he leaves his heirs wealthy and benefiting from his benevolence and wealth is better than him leaving them depending on the kindness of other people as a result of him giving his property to others than them. 2. Or that he stays alive and has his wealth, so he spends it in all the lawful ways, hoping for reward from Allah and being rewarded by Allah, even if he spends it in things that are obligatory on him, such as feeding his wife. Then, Sa‘d ibn Abi Waqqās (may Allah be pleased with him) feared that he might die in Makkah, from where he made his migration and had left for the sake of Allah, the Almighty, which might diminish his reward. So the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings upon him) informed him that he would not be forcibly left behind in a place that he migrated from, and that he should do good deeds seeking thereby the reward from Allah, and that Allah will raise him in rank. Then, he gave him the glad tidings that he would be cured from his illness and that Allah would benefit the believers through him and harm the disbelievers through him. It was exactly as he, the truthful and honest one, said: as Sa‘d was cured from his illness and became a chief in the war against the Persians. Allah benefited Islam and the Muslims through him, and he conquered many places, and He caused harm to polytheism and the polytheists through him. Then the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) supplicated Allah for all his Companions that He would fulfill for them their rank, accept it from them, and not turn them away from their religion or the lands to which they migrated. Allah accepted that supplication from him, and to Him is all praise and favor. All praise is due to Allah, Who honored Islam through them. Then the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) mentioned Sa‘d ibn Khawlah. He was from the people who migrated from Makkah, but Allah willed that he die in Makkah, and so he did. Therefore, the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) felt pity for him that he died in Makkah, for they used to dislike for an immigrant to die in a place which they had migrated from.

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