عن أبي موسى الأشعري -رضي الله عنه- أَنَّهُ تَوَضَّأ في بيتِهِ، ثُمَّ خَرَج، فقَال: لَأَلْزَمَنَّ رسُول الله -صلَّى الله علَيه وسلَّم- ولَأَكُونَنَّ مَعَهُ يَومِي هَذَا، فَجَاءَ الْمَسْجِدَ، فَسَألَ عَنِ النبيِّ -صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم- فَقَالُوا وَجَّهَ هَاهُنَا، قال: فَخَرَجْتُ عَلَى أَثَرِهِ أَسأَلُ عنْهُ، حتَّى دخَلَ بِئْرَ أَرِيسٍ، فَجَلَستُ عِندَ البَابِ حتَّى قَضَى رسُولُ الله -صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم- حَاجَتَهُ وَتَوَضَّأ، فَقُمتُ إِلَيهِ، فَإِذَا هُوَ قَدْ جَلَسَ عَلَى بِئْرِ أَرِيسٍ وَتَوَسَّطَ قُفَّهَا، وكَشَفَ عَنْ سَاقَيهِ وَدلَّاهُمَا فِي البِئرِ، فَسَلَّمتُ علَيه ثُمَّ انْصَرَفْتُ، فَجَلَسْتُ عِند البَابِ، فقُلتُ: لأَكُونَنَّ بَوَّابَ رسُول الله -صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم- اليَومَ، فجَاءَ أَبُو بَكر -رضِيَ الله عنْهُ- فَدَفَعَ البَابَ، فقُلتُ: مَنْ هَذَا؟ فَقَالَ: أَبُو بَكْرٍ، فقُلتُ: عَلَى رِسْلِكَ، ثُمَّ ذَهَبتُ، فَقُلْتُ: يَا رسُولَ الله، هَذَا أبُو بكرٍ يَسْتَأذِنُ، فقَالَ: «ائْذَنْ لَهُ وَبَشِّرْهُ بِالجَنَّةِ» فَأَقْبَلْتُ حتَّى قُلتُ لَأَبِي بَكْرٍ: ادْخُلْ وَرَسُولُ الله -صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم- يُبَشِّرُكَ بِالْجَنَّةِ، فَدَخَلَ أَبُو بَكرٍ حَتَّى جَلَسَ عَن يَمِينِ النبيِّ -صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم- مَعَهُ فِي القُفِّ، ودَلَّى رِجْلَيهِ فِي البِئْرِ كَمَا صَنَعَ رَسُولُ الله -صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم- وَكَشَفَ عَنْ سَاقَيهِ، ثُمَّ رَجَعْتُ وَجَلَسْتُ، وَقَدْ تَرَكْتُ أَخِي يَتَوَضَّأ وَيَلْحَقُنِي، فَقُلْتُ: إِنْ يُرِدِ اللهُ بِفُلاَنٍ - يُريِدُ أَخَاهُ - خَيرًا يَأتِ بِهِ، فَإِذَا إِنسَانٌ يُحَرِّكُ البَّابَ، فقُلتُ: مَنْ هَذَا؟ فقَالَ: عُمَرُ بن الخَطَّابِ، فقُلتُ: عَلَى رِسْلِكَ، ثُمَّ جِئْتُ إِلَى رسُول الله -صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم- فَسَلَّمْتُ عَلَيهِ وقُلْتُ: هَذَا عُمَرُ يَسْتَأْذِنُ؟ فَقَال: «ائْذَنْ لَهُ وَبَشِّرْهُ بِالجَنَّةِ» فَجِئْتُ عُمَرَ، فَقُلتُ: أَذِنَ وَيُبَشِّرُكَ رَسُولُ الله -صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم- بِالجَنَّةِ، فَدَخَلَ فَجَلَسَ مَعَ رسُولِ الله -صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم- فِي القُفِّ عَنْ يَسَارِهِ وَدَلَّى رِجْلَيهِ فِي البِئْرِ، ثُمَّ رَجَعْتُ فَجَلَسْتُ، فَقُلتُ: إِن يُرِدِ اللهُ بِفُلاَنٍ خَيرًا -يعنِي أَخَاهُ- يَأتِ بِهِ، فَجَاءَ إِنسَانٌ فَحَرَّكَ البَابَ، فقُلتُ: مَنْ هَذَا؟ فقَالَ: عُثمَانُ بنُ عَفَّان، فقُلتُ: عَلَى رِسْلِكَ، وَجِئتُ النبِيَّ -صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم- فَأَخبَرتُهُ، فقَالَ: «ائْذَنْ لَهُ وَبَشِّرهُ بِالجَنَّةِ مَعَ بَلوَى تُصِيبُهُ» فَجِئتُ، فقُلتُ: ادْخُل وَيُبَشِّرُكَ رسُول الله -صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم- بِالجَنَّةِ مَعَ بَلوَى تُصِيبُكَ، فَدَخَلَ فَوَجَدَ القُفَّ قَدْ مُلِئَ، فَجَلَسَ وِجَاهَهُم مِنَ الشِقِّ الآخَرِ. قال سعيد بنُ الْمُسَيِّبِ: فَأَوَّلْتُهَا قُبُورَهُم. وزاد في رواية: وَأَمَرَنِي رسُول الله -صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم- بِحفظِ البابِ، وفيها: أنَّ عُثمَانَ حِينَ بَشَّرَهُ حَمِدَ الله -تَعَالَى-، ثُمَّ قَالَ: اللهُ الْمُسْتَعَانُ.
[صحيح.] - [الرواية الأولى: متفق عليها: البخاري: (ج5/8، ح3674) واللفظ له (ج5/13، ح3695) (ج9/54، ح7097). مسلم: (ج4/1868، ح2403). الرواية الثانية: الزيادة الأولى: "وَأَمَرَنِي رسُول الله صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم بِحفظِ البابِ" أخرجها البخاري في صحيحه: (ج9/89، ح7262). وأما الزيادة الثانية: "أنَّ عُثمَانَ حِينَ بَشَّرَهُ حَمِدَ الله تَعَالَى، ثُمَّ قَالَ: اللهُ الْمُسْتَعَانُ"، فقد أخرجها البخاري أيضا: (ج8/48، ح6216).]
المزيــد ...

Abu Mūsa al-Ash‘ari (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that he performed ablution in his house and then came out saying: "I would remain with the Messenger of Allah (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) the whole day long." He came to the mosque and asked about the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him). They said: "He has gone in this direction." He (Abu Mūsa) said: "I followed his steps asking about him until I came to Bi'r Arīs (a well in the suburbs of Madīnah). I sat by its door until the Messenger of Allah (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) had relieved himself and then performed ablution. I went to him and he was sitting at the well in the middle of its elevated edge with his shanks uncovered up to the knees and his legs dangling in that well. I greeted him then came back and sat at the door saying: 'Today, I shall be the gatekeeper of the Messenger of Allah (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him).' Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) came and pushed the door and I said: 'Who is it?' He said: 'This is Abu Bakr.' I said: 'Wait, please.' I went and said: 'O Messenger of Allah, Abu Bakr seeks permission to come in.' He said: 'Let him in and give him glad tidings of Paradise.' I came and said to Abu Bakr: 'Come in, and the Messenger of Allah (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) gives you glad tidings of Paradise.' Abu Bakr went in and sat on the right side of the Messenger of Allah (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) on the elevated edge and dangled his feet in the well just as the Messenger of Allah had done, and he uncovered his shanks. I then returned and sat there, and I had left my brother performing ablution and he was to meet me, and I said: 'If Allah intends goodness for so and so (meaning his brother), He would bring him here.' As I was thinking of this, someone moved the door. I said: 'Who is it?' He said: 'This is ‘Umar ibn al-Khattāb.' I said: 'Wait, please.' Then, I went to the Messenger of Allah (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) and said: 'O Messenger of Allah, ‘Umar seeks permission to come in.' He said: 'Let him in and give him glad tidings of Paradise.' I came to ‘Umar and said: 'He gave permission, and the Messenger of Allah (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) gives you glad tidings of Paradise.' He went in and sat on the edge on the left side of the Messenger of Allah (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) and dangled his feet in the well. I then returned and sat and said: 'If Allah intends goodness for so and so (meaning his brother), He would bring him here.' Then, another person came and moved the door and I said: 'Who is it?' He said: 'This is ‘Uthmān ibn ‘Affān.' I said: 'Wait, please.' I then came to the Messenger of Allah (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) and told him, so he said: 'Let him in and give him glad tidings of Paradise along with an affliction that will befall him.' I came and said: 'Come in and the Messenger of Allah (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) gives you glad tidings of Paradise along with an affliction that will befall you.' He went in and saw that the edge of the well was fully occupied so he sat on the other side facing them." Sa‘īd ibn al-Musayyib said: "I interpreted this (order of sitting) as the way their graves would be arranged." Another version has the following addition: "and the Messenger of Allah (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) ordered me to guard the door." It also says that when ‘Uthmān was given glad tidings of Paradise and an affliction, he said: "Praise be to Allah" and then said: "Allah helps!"

Explanation

Abu Mūsa al-Ash‘ari (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that one day he performed ablution at home then set out seeking the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) saying: "Today, I shall stick to the Messenger of Allah (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him)." i.e. I will be with him as he comes and goes. So, he went to the mosque, because the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) was either in the mosque or at home tending to his family's needs or helping his companions with their affairs. He did not find him in the mosque. So, he inquired about him and the people told him that he walked in a certain direction. They pointed to the direction of Arīs, a well in the outskirts of Qubā'. Abu Mūsa then pursued him until he arrived at the well and found the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) there. He stayed at the gate of the orchard wherein the well was. The Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) answered the call of nature and then performed ablution and sat at the center of the edge of the well, dangling his legs and uncovering his shins. Abu Mūsa was guarding the door of the well, acting as a guard for the Messenger of Allah (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him). Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) sought permission to enter, but Abu Mūsa did not permit him until he informed the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) that Abu Bakr was seeking permission. The Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) told him to let Abu Bakr in and to give him glad tidings of Paradise. Such great tidings, indeed; giving him glad tidings of Paradise and then permitting him to enter to be in the Prophet's company. Abu Bakr entered and found the Prophet sitting in the center of the well's edge. He sat on his right side because the Prophet loved to start with the right side in all things. So, Abu Bakr sat on his right and did as the Prophet did. He dangled his feet in the well and uncovered his shins, disliking to sit in a way different from the way the Prophet was sitting. Abu Mūsa, who had left his brother performing ablution to catch up with him later, said that if Allah willed good for his brother, He will bring him there. And if he came and sought permission, he would be given glad tidings of Paradise. However, another man sought permission. Abu Mūsa went to the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) and said that it was ʿUmar. So, he told him to let him in and to give him glad tidings of Paradise. He let him in and told him that the Messenger of Allah (may Allah's peace and blessing be upon him) gave him glad tidings of Paradise. ‘Umar went in and found the Prophet and Abu Bakr sitting on the edge of the well. He sat on the left of the Prophet. The well was narrow and not wide, and so the three of them filled one side. Then, ‘Uthmān sought permission to enter, and Abu Mūsa sought permission for him in the same manner. The Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) told him to let ‘Uthmān in and to give him glad tidings of Paradise after a calamity that would befall him. So, he was given tidings of both Paradise and a calamity. In response, ‘Uthmān (may Allah be pleased with him) praised Allah for the glad tidings of Paradise and said that Allah is the One sought for help to overcome that calamity. He then went in and found the edge of the well (on one side) fully occupied as it was not very wide. So, he went to the opposite side, sat there, dangled his feet, and uncovered his shins. Sa‘īd ibn al-Musayyib, a leading Tābi‘i (from the generation that followed the Companions) interpreted this order of sitting to be their graves, since the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him), Abu Bakr, and ‘Umar were all buried in one room, and when they were alive, they came and went together. The Prophet would always say "I, Abu Bakr, and ʿUmar went" and "I, Abu Bakr, and ‘Umar came!" So, they were his companions and ministers, and on the Day of Resurrection they will come out of their graves together. They are together in this world and in the Hereafter. So, ‘Uthmān sat opposite them, and the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) gave him glad tidings of Paradise after a calamity that would befall him. This calamity is what happened to him when the people rebelled against him and murdered him at his home in Madīnah. They killed him while he was reciting the Qur’an, with the Book of Allah before him.

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