عن عائشة رضي الله عنها قالت: « خَسَفَتِ الشمس على عهد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فصَلَّى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم بالناس. فأطال القيام، ثم ركع، فأطال الركوع، ثم قام، فأطال القيام -وهو دون القيام الأول- ثم ركع، فأطال الركوع -وهو دون الركوع الأول- ثم رفع فأطال القيام -وهو دون القيام الأول- ثم سجد، فأطال السجود، ثم فعل في الركعة الأخرى مثل ما فَعَل في الرَّكعة الأولى، ثم انصرف، وقد تَجَلَّتْ الشمس، فخَطَب الناس، فحَمِد الله وأَثْنَى عليه، ثُمَّ قال: إِنَّ الشَّمس والقمَر آيَتَان مِن آيات الله، لا ينْخَسِفَانِ لموت أحد ولا لِحَيَاته، فَإِذا رَأَيتُم ذلك فَادْعُوا اللَّه وكَبِّرُوا ، وصَلُّوا وتَصَدَّقُوا.
ثم قال: يا أُمَّة مُحمَّد، واللهِ ما من أحد أغْيَرُ من الله أن يَزْنِيَ عبده أو تَزْنِيَ أَمَتُهُ. يا أُمَّةَ محمد، والله لو تعلمون ما أعلم لَضَحِكْتُمْ قليلا ولَبَكَيْتم كثيرا». وفي لفظ:«فاسْتَكَمَل أَرْبَع رَكَعَاتٍ وَأَرْبَع سَجَدَاتٍ». [صحيح] - [متفق عليه] المزيــد ...
‘Ā'ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) reported: During the lifetime of the Messenger of Allah (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) the sun eclipsed, so he led the people in prayer. He stood for a long time and then bowed for a long time. He stood again for a long time, but this time the period of standing was shorter than the first time. He then bowed again for a long time, but it was shorter than the first time, and then he prostrated and prolonged the prostration. He did the same in the second Rak‘ah and then finished the prayer. By that time, the sun had appeared. He delivered a sermon to the people and, after praising and glorifying Allah, he said:"The sun and the moon are two of the signs of Allah; they do not eclipse on the death or life of anyone. So when you see that, supplicate to Allah, say Takbīr, pray, and give charity." Then he said: "O followers of Muhammad, by Allah! No one gets more jealously protective than Allah when His male or female servant commits adultery. O followers of Muhammad, by Allah! If you knew what I know, you would laugh a little and weep a lot."
The wording of another narration reads: "He completed bowing four times and four prostrations." Sahih/Authentic. - [Al-Bukhari and Muslim]
The sun eclipsed during the lifetime of the Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him). As that was something unfamiliar to the people, he led them in a prayer that was also unfamiliar in its appearance and its manner. The Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) stood for a long time, bowed for a long time, and then he raised his back up and his recitation was long, but not as long as his first recitation. Then he bowed again, but this time it was shorter than the first time and then he prostrated and prolonged the prostration. He repeated the same thing in the second Rak‘ah, even though it was a little shorter. Every pillar of the prayer was shorter than what preceded it, until he completed bowing four times and performed four prostrations in two Rak‘ahs. Then he finished the prayer, and by that time the sun had appeared again. He delivered a sermon to the people, as he usually would on special occasions. He started by praising Allah and glorifying Him. It happened that the day on which the eclipse occurred was the same day as his son Ibrahīm died. So some of the people said:“The sun eclipsed because Ibrahīm died”, as in the pre-Islamic era they had thought that the sun only eclipsed due to the death or birth of a great person. The Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) intended to remove such superstitions from their minds and benefit the people through his advice and sincerity in conveying his message, as those beliefs were not based upon authentic textual proofs or sound logic. He wanted to clarify the wisdom behind the eclipse of the sun and the moon, so he said during his sermon:“The sun and the moon are two of the signs of Allah; they do not eclipse on the death or life of anyone”, rather Allah, the Almighty, makes these things occur by His omnipotence to scare His Servants and remind them of His blessings. So if you see an eclipse, turn to Allah, the Almighty, in repentance, supplicate to Him, say Takbīr, pray, and give charity, as such acts can repel anticipated affliction and descending punishment. he then started to explain in detail some of the grave major sins, such as fornication, that cause corruption in society and morals, and necessitate the Wrath and punishment of Allah. He, swore in this sermon, and he is the truthful one, saying:“O followers of Muhammad, by Allah! No one gets more jealously protective than Allah when His male or female servant commits adultery.” The Prophet explained that they knew only a little about the punishment of Allah, and if they knew what he knew, they would be obsessed by fear, they would only laugh a little and cry a lot, and they would be filled with grief. However, Allah has concealed this from them, out of His wisdom.