Hadith: The rewards of my Ummah were presented before me, even (the reward of) a speck (dust particle) that someone removes from the mosque; and the sins of my Ummah were presented before me, and I did not see a sin greater than that of someone who was given a chapter or a verse of the Qur'an, then he forgot it
عن أنس بن مالك، قال: قال رسول الله -صلى الله عليه وسلم-: «عُرِضَتْ عَلَيَّ أُجُورُ أُمَّتِي حَتَّى القَذَاةُ يُخرِجُها الرَّجُل من المسجد، وعُرِضَت عَليَّ ذنوب أُمَّتي، فلم أرَ ذنبًا أَعظَمَ مِنْ سُورَة مِنَ القرآن، أو آية أوتِيها رَجُلٌ، ثم نَسِيَها». [ضعيف.] - [رواه أبو داود] المزيــد ...
Anas ibn Mālik (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) said: "The rewards of my Ummah were presented before me, even (the reward of) a speck (dust particle) that someone removes from the mosque; and the sins of my Ummah were presented before me, and I did not see a sin greater than that of someone who was given a chapter or a verse of the Qur'an, then he forgot it."
The Hadīth reported by Anas ibn Mālik (may Allah be pleased with him) comprises one of the aspects of prophet-hood of Prophet Muhammad( may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) as he said: "The rewards and sins were presented before me", perhaps this was on the night of the Ascent (al-Mi‘rāj journey). "The rewards of my Ummah" means the reward of their good deeds. The rewards presented included everything even dust particles that may harm Muslims such as straws, dirt, filth, or anything else. In this statement, a missing part must be implied, i.e. the rewards of 'the deeds of' my Ummah'. The reward of a speck (dust particle) means the reward of removing it. It teaches us that one is rewarded for anything he removes from the mosque, no matter how small, because it is a means of cleaning the house of Allah.
By implication, the Hadīth also tells us that it is a sin to bring dust particles into the mosque. By referring to smaller things, the Hadīth also warns of greater things, because if such small deeds were recorded and presented before the Prophet, then it is obvious that bigger and greater deeds were also recorded and presented. Then the Prophet (may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) said: "I did not find a sin greater than…a chapter," i.e. greater than the sin of forgetting a chapter of the Qur'an.
The severe warning against forgetting the Qur'an is due to the fact that the Shariah is mainly based on the Qur'an; so forgetting it is similar to undermining the Sharia. If one says, "forgetfulness is not punishable in Islam", it is replied by, "what is meant here is intentional abandonment of the Qur'an that leads to forgetting it." Another possible interpretation is that this phrase means that the sin of forgetting the Qur'an, while not belittling or disrespecting it, is greater than other minor sins. The meaning of "or a verse" is to provide variation. The meaning of "someone given a chapter or a verse from the Qur'an" is when he learned or memorized it by heart, then he forgot it.
However, this Hadīth is weak, and there are authentic Hadīths that consider other sins greater than forgetting the Qur'an, e.g. polytheism, disobeying parents, and false testimony.
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